The Ottoman Empire or the Turkish Empire was one of the indomitable empires of history. This Islamic superpower governed (in 15th and 16th century) several zones of the Middle East, North Africa, and Eastern Europe for almost over 600 years. The main head, the Sultan, has had strict political and religious authority over the people of his kingdom. Ottoman Empire was of incredible regional strength and security and outclass in the field of arts, religion, tradition, and science. The Ottoman Empire was considered as a huge danger for Western Europeans. To study the interesting history of Ottoman Empire it is quite necessary to have knowledge about the great leader Osman, the founder of the Ottoman Empire and his father Ertugrul Ghazi.
Ertugrul Ghazi—Father of Osman I
One of the most famous Turk clan named Kayi clan. Kayi clan was genuinely more powerful warriors also densely populated than others were. Suleiman Shah supervised this warrior clan. Kayi clan in the authority of Suleiman Shah left his country Khorasan and went to Syria. On his way, Suleiman Shah drowned in the Euphrates River and died. Suleiman Shah had four children and Ertugrul was one of them. After the death of Suleiman Shah, none was there to govern the Kayi clan. Ertugrul was picked as a leader of the Kayi tribe as he was courageous and fearless. Seljuk was the territory of Aladdin Kayqubad I, known for his equity. When Ertugrul and his clan left for the Konya to look for shelter under Sultan Aladdin, at Ankara Ertugrul stopped and witnessed two militaries battling with one another. Ertugrul Ghazi knew nothing about militaries, however, he observed that one has less army and another is a tremendous armed force, he joined the military with fewer soldiers. Ertugrul only had 420 soldiers but he invaded the opponents and terrified them. They defeated their rivals. Afterward, it was realized that the military whom he aided was the military of Sultan Aladdin Kayqubad I.
Sultan Seljuk was fascinated by Ertugrul Ghazi’s valiance and his clan was awarded the Karaca Dağ territory in its realm. Kayi clan shifted there. According to some people, it is believed that Sultan Seljuk had awarded the zone to them to shield that side of the border from Byzantine’s armed force. Ertugrul was famous for his daring personality. Sultan also apportioned Söğüt city to the courageous leader Ertuğrul. This is how the Ertugrul territory spread wide. The dominion of Emperor Ertugrul makes Turkish clans merged with Ertuğrul Ghazi and authorized him as their head.
This is how the territory of Ertuğrul Ghazi was expanding and his impact started to be built up in neighboring territories. The rapidly increasing influence and power of Ertugrul was astonishing for Aladdin as well. On the other end, the Mongolians were quite powerful as they had enormous territory whereas; the Christian military had re-involved numerous provinces of Byzantines. Other than this, numerous Seljuk commanders had set up self-governing governments. The border was in a condition of danger because of the constant threat from Mongols. When the son of Suleyman Shah, Ertugrul vanquished Mongols and the great opponent Byzantines, the ruler Sultan Ala Ud Din presented this city to the heroic Ertuğrul and he titled the whole state “Sultanooni”. This huge piece of land was occupied with various palaces other than landless fields and productive. Yet, opponents governed the majority of the territory and completely set up his power, Ertuğrul Ghazi and his son Osman Ghazi battled for an extensive duration. Maybe in 1281 or in 1288, the year is not confirmed in history Ertuğrul Gazi passed away at 90 years old.
Osman I –Founder of Ottoman Empire
Osman I, a pioneer of the Turkish clans in Anatolia, established the Ottoman Empire in 1299. The word “Ottoman” is taken from Osman’s name, which stands for “‘Uthman” in the Arabic language. The Ottoman Turks set up a proper government and extended their domain under the authority of Osman I, Orhan, Bayezid I and Murad I. In 1453, Mehmed II the Conqueror drove the Ottoman Turks in holding onto the old city of Constantinople, which was previously under Byzantine Empire. This is how the Byzantine Empire ended up after the 1,000-year rule of the Byzantine Empire. The city Constantinople was renamed “Istanbul “by Sultan Mehmed which means the city of peace. Later, it was made the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul turned into a leading worldwide centermost of business and culture.
Sultan Osman Ghazi was very close to a philosopher of his era named Sheikh Edebali. He often went to meet him. Once Osman slept at the temple of Sheikh Edebali, he saw in his dream that a moon that moved from the core of Sheikh Edebali to his heart and a tree developed from his side, which kept on developing even that its branches secured the entire earth and sea. Four rivers were streaming out of the underlying foundations of this tree. Four biggest piles of the world were supporting its stem.
When Osman discussed this dream to Sheikh Edebali, he praised him and told him ALLAH (SWT) has picked him and his generation for serving Islam and he will be married to the youngest daughter of Sheikh Ebdeli. He was also told that the rivers he saw in his dream were Danyon, Niel, Euphrates, and Tigris. The mountains were Balkan, Toor Atlas and Qaaf. Sheikh Edebali predicted about the expansion of his emperor. Constantinople was the city about which he dreamed which was conquered by the son of Osman Ghazi, named Sultan Muhammad Fatih.
This family has governed the world for the longest period in Islamic History. Ottoman’s family was the sharpest and commendable rulers of the time. Osman Ghazi tried to manage equality and justness among people. He never misused assets and power. He was liberal, kind and fair. The Turks due to these characteristics are regarding him even until today.